References list

2b Resource, teacher and class-size effects, efficiency

Where possible, the list provides abstracts of the entries and links to the publication.
Initial list compiled by: Ludger Wößmann

This reference list contains three parts:

  • Introductory Reading
    Somebody who does not know this literature or wants to get an overview might want to start here.
  • Key References
    Some of the most important references in this literature, which may require some more knowledge of the field.
  • Further Reading
    Organized by date of publication.

Introductory Reading

  1. Angrist, Joshua D., Susan M. Dynarski, Thomas J. Kane, Parag A. Pathak, and Christopher R. Walters (2010). Inputs and Impacts in Charter Schools: KIPP Lynn. In: American Economic Review 100(2) , 239--43 . Link.

  2. Card, David and Alan B. Krueger (1996). School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina. In: Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(4) , 31-50 . Abstract. Link.

  3. Epple, Dennis, Richard E. Romano and Ronald Zimmer (2016). Charter Schools: A Survey of Research on Their Characteristics and Effectiveness. In: Eric A. Hanushek, Steven Machin, Ludger Woessmann. Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol. 5. Amsterdam: Elsevier . Abstract. Link.

  4. Hanushek, Eric A. (2011). The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality. In: Economics of Education Review 30(3) , 466-479 . Abstract. Link.

  5. Hanushek, Eric A. (2003). The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies. In: Economic Journal 113(485) , F64-F98 . Abstract. Link.

  6. Hanushek, Eric A. (1986). The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools. In: Journal of Economic Literature 24(3) , 1141-1177 . Abstract. Link.

  7. Krueger, Alan B. (2003). Economic Considerations and Class Size. In: Economic Journal 113(485) , 34-63 . Abstract. Link.

  8. Schanzenbach, Diane W. (2007). What Have Researchers Learned from Project STAR?. In: Brookings Papers on Education Policy 9(2006/2007) , 205--228 . Abstract. Link.

  9. Woessmann, Ludger (2002). Schooling and the Quality of Human Capital. Berlin: Springer . Abstract. Link.

Key references

  1. Angrist, Joshua D. and Victor Lavy (1999). Using Maimonides' Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 114(2) , 533-575 . Abstract. Link.

  2. Booker, Kevin, Scott M. Gilpatric, Timothy Gronberg and Dennis Jansen (2007). The Impact of Charter School Attendance on Student Performance. In: Journal of Public Economics 91 (5-6) , 849-876 . Abstract. Link.

  3. Booker, Kevin, Tim R. Sass, Brian Gill and Ron Zimmer (2011). The Effects of Charter High Schools on Educational Attainment. In: Journal of Labor Economics 29(2) , 377-415 . Abstract. Link.

  4. Bulman, George and Robert W. Fairlie (2016). Technology and Education: Computers, Software, and the Internet. Eric A. Hanushek, Steven Machin and Ludger Woessmann. Amsterdam: . Abstract. Link.

  5. Campuzano, Larissa, Mark Dynarski, Roberto Agodini and Kristina Rall (2009). Effectiveness of Reading and Mathematics Software Products: Findings from Two Student Cohorts. . In: Report prepared by Mathematica Policy Research 29(2) , NCEE 2009-4041 . Abstract. Link.

  6. Card, David and Alan B. Krueger (1992). Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States. In: Journal of Political Economy 100(1) , 01-40 . Abstract. Link.

  7. Chetty, Raj, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach and Danny Yagan (2011). How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project Star. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 126(4) , 1593-1660 . Abstract. Link.

  8. Dobbie, Will and Roland G. Fryer (2011). Are High-Quality Schools Enough to Increase Achievement among the Poor? Evidence from the Harlem Children's Zone. In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 3(3) , 158-187 . Abstract. Link.

  9. Duflo, Esther, Pascaline Dupas and Michael Kremer (2015). School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil–Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools. In: Journal of Public Economics 123 , 92-110 . Abstract. Link.

  10. Falck, Oliver, Constantin Mang and Ludger Woessmann (2015). Virtually No Effect? Different Uses of Classroom Computers and their Effect on Student Achievement. CESifo Working Paper 5266. Abstract. Link.

  11. Fredriksson, Peter, Björn Öckert and Hessel Oosterbeek (2013). Long-term effects of class size. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 128(1) , 249-285 . Abstract. Link.

  12. Fryer, Roland G. Jr (2014). Injecting Charter School Best Practices into Traditional Public Schools: Evidence from Field Experiments. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 129 (3) , 1355-1407 . Abstract. Link.

  13. Gundlach, Erich, Ludger Woessmann and Jens Gmelin (2001). The Decline of Schooling Productivity in OECD Countries. In: Economic Journal 111(471) , C135-C147 . Abstract. Link.

  14. Hanushek, Eric A., Marc Piopiunik and Simon Wiederhold (2014). The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance. NBER Working Paper 20727. Abstract. Link.

  15. Hoxby, Caroline M. (2000). The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 115(4) , 1239-1285 . Abstract. Link.

  16. Jackson, C. Kirabo, Jonah E. Rockoff and Douglas O. Staiger (2014). Teacher Effects and Teacher Related Policies. In: Annual Review of Economics 6 , 801-825 . Abstract. Link.

  17. Jackson, C. Kirabo, Rucker C. Johnson and Claudia Persico (2016). The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from School Finance Reforms . In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 131(1) , 157-218 . Abstract. Link.

  18. Krueger, Alan B. (1999). Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 114(2) , 497-532 . Abstract. Link.

  19. Lavy, Victor (2015). Do Differences in Schools’ Instruction Time Explain International Achievement Gaps? Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries. In: Economic Journal 125(588) , F397-F424 . Abstract. Link.

  20. Lazear, Edward P. (2001). Educational Production. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 116(3) , 777-803 . Abstract. Link.

  21. Machin, Stephen and Sandra McNally (2008). The Literacy Hour'. In: Journal of Public Economics 92(5-6) , 1441-1462 . Abstract. Link.

  22. Muralidharan, Karthik and Venkatesh Sundararaman (2010). The Impact of Diagnostic Feedback to Teachers on Student Learning: Experimental Evidence from India. In: Economic Journal 120(546) , F187-F203 . Abstract. Link.

  23. Nagler, Markus, Marc Piopiunik and Martin R. West (2015). Weak Markets, Strong Teachers: Recession at Career Start and Teacher Effectiveness. NBER Working Paper 21393. Abstract. Link.

  24. Rivkin, Steven G. and Jeffrey C. (2015). Instruction Time, Classroom Quality, and Academic Achievement. In: Economic Journal 125(588) , F425-F448 . Abstract. Link.

  25. Rivkin, Steven G., Eric A. Hanushek and John F. Kain (2005). Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement. In: Econometrica 73(2) , 417-458 . Abstract. Link.

  26. Sacerdote, Bruce (2011). Peer Effects in Education: How Might They Work, How Big Are They and How Much Do We Know Thus Far?. In: Eric A. Hanushek, Stephen Machin and Ludger Woessmann (eds.). Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol. 3. Amsterdam: North-Holland , 249-277 . Abstract. Link.

  27. Schwerdt, Guido and Matthew M. Chingos (2015). Virtual Schooling and Student Learning: Evidence from the Florida Virtual School. PEPG 14-02. Abstract. Link.

  28. Taylor, Eric S. and John H. Tyler (2012). The Effect of Evaluation on Teacher Performance. In: American Economic Review 102(7) , 3628--51 . Abstract. Link.

  29. Woessmann, Ludger and Martin R. West (2006). Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS. In: European Economic Review 50(3) , 695-736 . Abstract. Link.

Further reading

  1. Akerhielm, Karen (1995). Does Class Size Matter?. In: Economics of Education Review 14(3) , 229-241 . Abstract. Link.

  2. Ammermüller, Andreas, Hans Heijke and Ludger Woessmann (2005). Schooling Quality in Eastern Europe: Educational Production During Transition. In: Economics of Education Review 24(5) , 579-599 . Abstract. Link.

  3. Angrist, Joshua D., Sarah R. Cohodes, Susan M. Dynarski, Parag A. Pathak and Christopher R. Walters (2015). Stand and Deliver: Effects of Boston’s Charter High Schools on College Preparation, Entry, and Choice. In: Journal of Labor Economics 34(2) , 275-318 . Abstract. Link.

  4. Argys, Laura M. and Daniel I. Rees (2008). Searching for Peer Group Effects: A Test of the Contagion Hypothesis. In: Review of Economics and Statistics 90(3) , 442-458 . Abstract. Link.

  5. Barrow, Lisa, Lisa Markman and Cecilia Elena Rouse (2009). Technology’s Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-aided Instruction. . In: American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 1 (1) , 52-74 . Abstract. Link.

  6. Belot, Michèle and Dinand Webbink (2010). Do Teacher Strikes Harm Student Achievement?. In: Labour – Review of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations 24(4) , 391-406 . Abstract. Link.

  7. Belot, Michèle and Jonathan James (2011). Healthy School Meals and Educational Outcomes. In: Journal of Health Economics 30(3) , 489-504 . Abstract. Link.

  8. Blau, Francine D. (1996). Symposium on Primary and Secondary Education. In: Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(4) , 03-72 . Abstract. Link.

  9. Bonesrønning, Hans (2003). Class Size Effects on Student Achievement in Norway: Patterns and Explanations. In: Southern Economic Journal 69(4) , 952-965 . Abstract. Link.

  10. Bonesrønning, Hans (1996). School Characteristics and Student Achievement: Evidence from Combined Upper Secondary Schools in Norway. In: Education Economics 4(2) , 143-160 . Abstract. Link.

  11. Boozer, Michael and Cecilia Rouse (2001). Intraschool Variation in Class Size: Patterns and Implications. In: Journal of Urban Economics 50(1) , 163-189 . Abstract. Link.

  12. Borghans, Lex, Bas ter Weel and Bruce A. Weinberg (2008). Interpersonal Styles and Labor Market Outcomes. In: Journal of Human Resources 43(4) , 815-858 . Abstract. Link.

  13. Bressoux, Pascal, Francis Kramarz and Corinne Prost (2009). Teachers' Training, Class Size and Students' Outcomes: Learning from Administrative Forecasting Mistakes. In: Economic Journal 119(536) , 540-561 . Abstract. Link.

  14. Browning, Martin and Eskil Heinesen (2007). Class Size, Teacher Hours and Educational Attainment. In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics 109(2) , 415-438 . Abstract. Link.

  15. Brunello, Giorgio and Lorenzo Rocco (2008). Educational Standards in Private and Public Schools. In: Economic Journal 118(533) , 1866-1887 . Abstract. Link.

  16. Burtless, Gary (ed.) (1996). Does Money Matter? The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement and Adult Success. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press . Abstract. Link.

  17. Bénabou, Roland, Francis Kramarz and Corinne Prost (2009). The French zones d'éducation prioritaire: Much ado about nothing?. In: Economics of Education Review 28(3) , 345-356 . Abstract. Link.

  18. Carrell, Scott E., Frederick V. Malmstrom and James E. West (2008). Peer Effects in Academic Cheating. In: Journal of Human Resources 43(1) , 173-207 . Abstract. Link.

  19. Case, Anne and Angus Deaton (1999). School Inputs and Educational Outcomes in South Africa. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics 114(3) , 1047-1084 . Abstract. Link.

  20. Chetty, Raj, John N. Friedman and Jonah E. Rockoff (2014b). Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood. In: American Economic Review 104(9) , 2633-2679 . Abstract. Link.

  21. Chetty, Raj, John N. Friedman and Jonah E. Rockoff (2014a). Measuring the Impacts of Teachers I: Evaluating Bias in Teacher Value-Added Estimates. In: American Economic Review 104(9) , 2593-2632 . Abstract. Link.

  22. Chingos, Matthew M. and Paul E. Peterson (2011). It’s Easier to Pick a Good Teacher Than to Train One: Familiar and New Results on the Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness. In: Economics of Education Review 30(3) , 449-465 . Abstract. Link.

  23. Clotfelter, Charles T., Helen F. Ladd and Jacob L. Vigdor (2010). Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects. In: Journal of Human Resources 45(3) , 655–681 . Abstract. Link.

  24. Coleman, James S., E.Q. Campbell, C.J. Hobson, J. McPartland, A.M. Mood, F.D. Weinfeld and R.L. York (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity: Summary Report. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office . Link.

  25. Das, Jishnu, Stefan Dercon, James Habyarimana and Pramila Krishnan (2007). Teacher Shocks and Student Learning: Evidence from Zambia. In: Journal of Human Resources 42(4) , 820-862 . Abstract. Link.

  26. Dearden, Lorraine, Javier Ferri and Costas Meghir (2002). The Effect of School Quality on Educational Attainment and Wages. In: Review of Economics and Statistics 84(1) , 01-20 . Abstract. Link.

  27. Dee, Thomas S. (2005). A Teacher Like Me: Does Race, Ethnicity, or Gender Matter?. In: American Economic Review 95(2) , 158-165 . Link.

  28. Ding, Weili and Steven F. Lehrer (2007). Do Peers Affect Student Achievement in China's Secondary Schools?. In: Review of Economics and Statistics 89(2) , 300-312 . Abstract. Link.

  29. Dobbelsteen, Simone, Jesse Levin and Hessel Oosterbeek (2002). The Causal Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement: Distinguishing the Pure Class Size Effect from the Effect of Changes in Class Composition. In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 64(1) , 17-38 . Abstract. Link.

  30. Dobbie, Will, and Roland G. Fryer, Jr. (2013). Getting beneath the Veil of Effective Schools: Evidence from New York City. In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 5(4) , 28-60 . Abstract. Link.

  31. Dolton, Peter and Oscar D. Marcenaro-Gutierrez (2011). If You Pay Peanuts Do You Get Monkeys? A Cross-country Analysis of Teacher Pay and Pupil Performance. In: Economic Policy 26(65) , 5-55 . Abstract. Link.

  32. Dustmann, Christian (2003). The Class Size Debate and Educational Mechanisms. In: Economic Journal 113(485) , 01-02 . Link.

  33. Dustmann, Christian, Najma Rajah and Arthur van Soest (2003). Class Size, Education, and Wages. In: Economic Journal 133(485) , 99-120 . Abstract. Link.

  34. Fairlie, Robert W., Florian Hoffmann and Philip Oreopoulos (2014). A Community College Instructor like Me: Race and Ethnicity Interactions in the Classroom. In: American Economic Review 104(8) , 2567-2591 . Abstract. Link.

  35. Falch, Torberg, Hans Bonesrønning and Bjarne Strøm (2005). Teacher sorting, teacher quality, and student composition. In: European Economic Review 49(2) , 457-483 . Abstract. Link.

  36. Falch,Torberg and Marte Rønning (2007). The Influence of Student Achievement on Teacher Turnover. In: Education Economics 15(2) , 177-208 . Abstract. Link.

  37. Falch,Torberg, Marte Rønning and Bjarne Strøm (2007). A cost model of schools: School size, school structure and student composition. In: N. Soguel and P. Jaccard (eds.). Governance and performance of education systems. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 247-265 . Abstract. Link.

  38. Feinstein, Leon and James Symons (1999). Attainment in Secondary School. In: Oxford Economic Papers 51(2) , 300-321 . Abstract. Link.

  39. Finn, Jeremy D. and Charles M. Achilles (1990). Answers and Questions about Class Size: A Statewide Experiment. In: American Educational Research Journal 27(3) , 557-577 . Abstract. Link.

  40. Fryer, Roland G. (2013). Teacher Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from New York City Public Schools. In: Journal of Labor Economics 31(2) , 373-427 . Link.

  41. Fryer, Roland G., Jr., Steven D. Levitt, John List and Sally Sadoff (2012). Enhancing the Efficacy of Teacher Incentives through Loss Aversion: A Field Experiment. NBER Working Paper 18237. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Abstract. Link.

  42. Fuchs, Thomas and Ludger Woessmann (2007). What Accounts for International Differences in Student Performance? A Re-examination using PISA Data. In: Empirical Economics 32(2-3) , 433-464 . Abstract. Link.

  43. Glewwe, Paul (2002). Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes. In: Journal of Economic Literature 40(2) , 436-482 . Abstract. Link.

  44. Glewwe, Paul, Nauman Ilias and Michael Kremer (2010). Teacher Incentives. In: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2(3) , 205-227 . Abstract. Link.

  45. Goldhaber, Dan (2007). Everyone’s Doing It, But What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?. In: Journal of Human Resources 42(4) , 765-794 . Abstract. Link.

  46. Goldhaber, Dan and Emily Anthony (2007). Can Teacher Quality Be Effectively Assessed? National Board Certification as a Signal of Effective Teaching. In: Review of Economics and Statistics 89(1) , 134-150 . Abstract. Link.

  47. Gundlach, Erich and Ludger Woessmann (2001). The Fading Productivity of Schooling in East Asia. In: Journal of Asian Economics 12(3) , 401-417 . Abstract. Link.

  48. Hanushek, Eric A (1996). Measuring Investment in Education. In: Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(4) , 09-30 . Abstract. Link.

  49. Hanushek, Eric A. (2002). Publicly Provided Education. In: Alan J. Auerbach and Martin Feldstein (eds.). Handbook of Public Economics, Vol. 4. Amsterdam: North Holland , 2045-2141 . Abstract. Link.

  50. Hanushek, Eric A. (1997). Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update. In: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 19(2) , 141-164 . Abstract. Link.

  51. Hanushek, Eric A. (1995). Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries. In: World Bank Research Observer 10(2) , 227-246 . Abstract. Link.

  52. Hanushek, Eric A. (1981). Throwing Money at Schools. In: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 1(1) , 19-41 . Abstract. Link.

  53. Hanushek, Eric A. (1971). Teacher Characteristics and Gains in Student Achievement: Estimation Using Micro-Data. In: American Economic Review 61(2) , 280-288 . Abstract. Link.

  54. Hanushek, Eric A. and Javier A. Luque (2003). Efficiency and Equity in Schools around the World. In: Economics of Education Review 22(5) , 481-502 . Abstract. Link.

  55. Hanushek, Eric A. and Ralph W. Harbison (1992). Educational performance of the Poor: Lessons from Rural Northeast Brazil. New York: Oxford University Press . Abstract. Link.

  56. Hanushek, Eric A., Steven G. Rivkin and Lori L. Taylor (1996). Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources. In: Review of Economics and Statistics 78(4) , 611-627 . Abstract. Link.

  57. Heckman, James J., Anne Layne-Farrar and Petra Todd (1996). Human Capital Pricing Equations with an Application to Estimating the Effect of Schooling Quality on Earnings. In: Review of Economics and Statistics 78(4) , 562-610 . Abstract. Link.

  58. Heinesen, Eskil (2010). Estimating Class-size Effects using Within-school Variation in Subject-specific Classes. In: Economic Journal 120(545) , 737-760 . Abstract. Link.

  59. Heinesen, Eskil and Brian Krogh Graversen (2005). The Effect of School Resources on Educational Attainment: Evidence from Denmark. In: Bulletin of Economic Research 57(2) , 109-143 . Abstract. Link.

  60. Häkkinen, Iida, Tanja Kirjavainen and Roope Uusitalo (2003). School Resources and Student Achievement Revisited: New Evidence from Panel Data. In: Economics of Education Review 22(3) , 329-335 . Abstract. Link.

  61. Iacovou, Maria (2002). Class Size in the Early Years: Is Smaller Really Better?. In: Education Economics 10(3) , 261-290 . Abstract. Link.

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