8 Socio-Demographic Aspects

In many societies, there are considerable gender differences in educational opportunities and outcomes. The results of the well-known PISA study in parts reveal considerable performance differences between boys and girls. Thus, basically all of the studies on rates of return to education cited above distinguish between labour-market returns for female and male workers. Also, basically all of the studies on the determinants of educational achievement study performance differences between girls and boys. Examples of specific gender studies are Dolton and Makepeace’s (1987; 1993) studies of the impact of marital status and child rearing on earnings differentials in the graduate labour market and of the impact of female decisions about labour-market participation and occupational choice on the supply of teachers; Filer’s (1993) study showing the importance of properly accounting for work experience when estimating the rate of return to education for women; and Machin and Puhani’s (2003) study of the impact of subject of degree on gender wage differentials in the United Kingdom and Germany.

In more recent studies Machin and McNally (2005) analyze the reasons for the gender gap in academic achievement in England. Münich, Svejnar and Terrell (2005b) study the returns to women’s human capital during communism and transition periods. Trends in gender wage gaps in the US and Denmark are analyzed by Datta Gupta, Oaxaca and Smith (2006). In a historical framework - using German data from the Prussian Empire - Becker and Woessmann (2008) show, that a higher share of Protestants in a county/town reduces the gender gap in basic education and literacy.

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8a Gender
8b Aging
8c Minorities and migration
8d Handicapped