6 Training, Informal Learning and Lifelong Learning

Training and lifelong learning constitute a vital part of human capital policies. The economics of education generally distinguishes between firm-specific and general-knowledge training and asks for the different incentives to invest in the two, both for the worker and for the employer. Leuven and Oosterbeek (2001; 2004) have contributed to this literature by analysing firm-specific human capital as a shared investment and by estimating the effect of tax deductions on training. Brunello and Medio (2001) present an explanation for international differences in workplace training. As a major empirical advancement to economics knowledge in general, Abowd, Kramarz and Margolis (1999) and Abowd and Kramarz (1999) use matched longitudinal employer-employee data to analyse specific remuneration patterns within firms, finding that additional personal features, not related to formal education, affect wage variations in France substantially.

Jenkins, Vignoles, Wolf and Galindo-Rueda (2002) analyse the determinants and effects of lifelong learning. Leuven and Tuijnman (1996) treat the financing of lifelong learning, and Oosterbeek (1998) suggests additional innovative ways to finance lifelong learning. Patrinos (2003) gives a detailed account of the challenges that lifelong learning plays for developing countries in the global knowledge economy.

During the last years research on this topic has tremendously increased. Oosterbeek, Sloof and Sonnemans (2007) ask whether the employer or the employee should invest in training and Oosterbeek and Patrinos (2009) discus different schemes to finance Lifelong Learning. Brunello et al. (2007) edit an overview on education & training in Europe with one focus on professional training. Brunello and Gambarotto (2007) and Brunello and de Paola (2008) study regional determinants of the provision of training. Mühlemann, Schweri, Wolter (2006) and Mühlemann, Schweri, Winkelmann, Wolter (2007) study the decision of firms to train apprentices. Messer and Wolter (2009) analyze the effects of a randomized field experiment offering training vouchers for adult training.



6a Training (firm-specific and general knowledge)
6b Informal learning
6c Adult education and lifelong learning

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