7 Research and Knowledge Creation

All these forms of education and apprenticeship are central to a society in promoting and spreading both research and knowledge and in transferring this knowledge into entrepreneurship and innovativeness. This makes education play an essential role in developing a knowledge-based economy. In order to transfer research findings into marketable goods, innovative entrepreneurs are needed who evidently correlate negatively with risk aversion (Cramer, Hartog, Jonker und van Praag 2002). Technological innovation influences the economic capacity, employment and the wages in a country (cf. Hall und Kramarz 1998).

Lachenmaier and Woessmann (2006) show that innovations driven by entrepreneurial capacities, acquired in an educational system, increase exports of firms and thereby increase economic growth. Oosterbeek, van Praag and IJsselstein (2009) examine the effects of entrepreneurial classes on entrepreneurial skills and on future decisions to become an entrepreneur. Macho-Stadler, Pérez-Castrillo and Veugelers (2006) develop a theoretical model in order to explain the special role of technology transfer offices for the foundation of an enterprise out of university (spin-off).



7a Research and development (R&D)
7b Entrepreneurship and innovation

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